Humans have tens of thousands of genes. When one is exposed to carcinogens, radiation, viruses, or infection for an extended period of time, genetic mutations can result, leading to an abnormal growth in cells and thereby cancer. For treating patient cancer, it is necessary to identify how the cancer cells grow and divide so that the patients can be treated with more individualised medical treatment plans to optimise clinical outcome. Currently, genetic testing has been used to help patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, or ovarian cancer to develop a cancer treatment plan that meets their needs.
Personalised cancer therapy has been gaining traction as a new medical development in cancer treatment. Instead of relying on the stage and type of the cancer, doctors can, after identifying the nature and genetic sequences of cancer cells through advanced genetic tests, then target cancer cells with the new generation of precision medicines, including targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Regardless of the type of cancer, genetic tests can identify the mutated genes and allow precision medicines to effectively target and attack cancer cells without being restrained by the location of the cancer tumour.